Sunday, November 24, 2013

Agada Tantra

Ayurveda is oldest medical science known to mankind and mainly aims at healthy living and long life unlike other medical science which simply focus on the treatment of ailments and diseases. According to Ayurvedic science, there should be proper balance between the inner constituent elements of the body for a healthy existence. Apart from the rules and regulations of healthy existence, also deals with surgery and several complex ailments. Ayurvedic science is so elaborate and vast that it is divided into eight branches of Ayurveda and each branch is specialized in a particular treatment. One of these branches is the Agada Tantra.


Branch Of Ayurveda

Agada tantra or toxicology is a branch of Ashtang Ayurveda, which includes the science of poisons. The tradition of Agada tantra practice is very ancient. It originated from the school of toxicology, which was founded and run by Kashyapa, also known as Vriddhakashyapa, the great saint and medical practioner. The students of the Kashyapa School of toxicology later became royal vaidyas (doctors) in various kingdoms and were meant to protect the members of the royal families from being poisoned. They were at times also used to administer poison to their king’s enemies. Even now the traditional practice of toxicology is done by different families of Vishavaidyas (poison doctors) who claim to be specialists in toxicology in various parts of Indian subcontinent.

Damstra or Visha chikitsa, as the Aganda Tantra is popularly known, deals with various methods of cleaning the poisons out of the body as well as recommends antidotes for particular poisons. It deals with a wide range of natural toxins originating from wild lives like animals, birds, insects etc., plants including herbs (belladonna, aconite etc.), vegetables, minerals (leads, mercury, arsenal etc.) and artificial poisons prepared from poisonous drugs. This branch also deals with air and water pollution, which are basically the causes of various dangerous epidemics. 

There are two types of poisons that have been described in the Agada tantra- the Natural poisons and the Artificial poisons. The natural poisons are classified as inanimate (Sthaavara) and animate (Jangama). Inanimate poisons or the Staavara comprise of poisons that have plant origin and toxic minerals, metals or metal ores that are found inside the earth. Animate poisons or Jangama consist of the venoms of animals like snakes, scorpions, worms, insects etc. Artificial poisons are the invented poisons which are prepared by combining different kinds of animate and inanimate poisons. 

Apart from the above mentioned poisons, the three samhitas described about this branch of toxicology, also include the description and disadvantages of food of opposite qualities, drugs and food causing chronic poisoning symptoms. There are also descriptions of certain poisons that are used as medicines after proper processing and quantification, precious stones like diamond, ruby and poisonous minerals like lead and mercury are few of them. This branch of Ayurveda also has information regarding fatal doses of various poisons.

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Saturday, April 6, 2013

Ayurvedic medicinal plants - 4

          Adhatoda vasica

Nama-Rupa –Guna-Karma_Vignanam 



A.  Names in diferent languages:
    1.      Sanskrit Name: vasa
    2.      Local Name: ආඩතෝඩා , වංඇපල
    3.      Latin Name: Adhatoda vasica
    4.      Family: Acanthaceae
    5.      Paryaya: vāsikā, vāsakā, bhishagmatā, sinhikā, sinhāsya, vājadantā

    B.     Prayojyanga-Kalpana:
          ·         Roots
          ·         Leaves
          ·         Flowers

 C.    Panchendriya Pareeksha (organoleptic study)
I).      Chakshurindriya Pareeksha:
 Morphology of Drug
A shrub 1-2 m tall with many opposite, asending branches, cylindrical stem glabrous, young parts finaly puberulous.
            Leaves are simple, large opposite, decussate, 9-25 cm long, acuminate, subcute, very faintly crenate, glabrous, dark green above and palor beneath, lateral veins 4-13 pairs. Parallel and reticulate petioles 0.7-3.5 cm long & hairly.
            Flowers are irregular, large, white, petals 5, fused into two lipped corolla, pubescent outside, corolla tube 1.2 cm long, lower part cylindrical broad, oblong, oval, curved, veins reddish purple at the back, lower lip as long as upper lip.
Flowers in October to December
Fruits- capsule 1.8cm long clavate, pubescent
Seeds- 4 Glabrous, tubercular

II).   Ghranendriya Pareeksha:
                                                              i)      Odour of drug:
                                                            ii)      Odour while burning:
                                                          iii)      Any specialties:

III).  Sparshanendriya Pareeksha:

IV).   Rasendriya Pareeksha:

        Ø  Thikta
        Ø  Kashaya

    D.    Panchabhoutika Nirmanaya(according to Rasa):

            ·         Thikta       =    Vayu + Akasha
            ·         Kashaya    =    Vayu + Prthvi

     E.     Chemical constituents:
              ü  The leaves – Adhatodic acid, alkaloidsvasicine, vasicinore & Betaine,
                     essential oil
              ü  The roots    – Vasicinol, G-hydroxypeganing, peganine
              ü  The flowers – Vasicine, vasicinine, tritriacontane, α-amyrine, β-sitosterol

     F.     Chemical tests For identification(if any):

     G.    Substitutes & Adulterants:
                           Adul terants – Pavetta indica Linn

     H.    Guna Karma:

1.      Veerya: Sheeta
2.      Vipaka: Katu
3.      Guna: Laghu, Ruksha
4.      Prabhava:
5.      Doshagnata: Kapha-pitta shanmaka
6.      Rogaghnata: Swasa, Kasa, Kshaya,Chardi, Kushta
7.      Karma: Hrdya, Grahi, Laghu
8.      Matra: Patra swarasa – 1-2 karsha
            Choorna – 1-4 masha
9.      Vishista Kalpana/Yoga: Vasarishtya, Vasa gritatya, Vasavalehaya,
                                         Vasa sirap, Vasa chandanadi thaila

    I.       Amaika Prayoga(With Reference):
1.         All kinds of bleeding.
2.         Bronchitis (expectorant). For chronic cough a jam is prepared by adding sugar. This is also good against constipation . Since vasa is bitter and cold, it regulates Pitta and is therefore good for liver – fever and asthma.
3.         Jaundice.
4.         Fever.
5.         Asthama (often smoked along with dhatura leaves)
6.         Skin diseases (taken internally and applied externally)
7.         Tuberculosis.
8.         Kidney diseases (acts as a diuretic)
9.         Ulcers.
10.     Wounds.
11.     Conjunctivities (juice of flower)
                                                   (Ayurveda herbs – Dr. P.H. Kulkarni)

GWAI-University of Kelaniya 
Sri Lanka


Thursday, October 18, 2012

Ayurvedic medicinal plants - 3

                                               Terminalia chebula

                                  Nama-Rupa –Guna-Karma_Vignanam

 Names in diferent languages:

1. Sanskrit Name:Haritaki
2. Sinhala Name: Aralu
3. Latin Name: Terminalia chebula
5. Paryaya: Vijaya, Rohini, Putana, Amruta, Abhaya, Jeevanti, Chetaki


· Fruit











 Panchendriya Pareeksha (organoleptic study)

I). Chakshurindriya Pareeksha: 
Morphology of Drug

Terminalia chebula is a tree with a rounded crown and spreading
branches. The bark is dark-brown, often longitudinally cracked
Tthe leaves are ovate or elliptic with a pair of large glands at the
top of the petiole.
Tthe flowers are yellowish white, in terminal spikes; the drupes
are ellipsoidal, obovoid or ovoid, yellow to orange-brown and hard when
ripe, becoming 5-ribbed on drying.
The seeds are hard and pale yellow.


II). Ghranendriya Pareeksha:

i) Odour of drug:
ii) Odour while burning:
iii) Any specialties:

III). Sparshanendriya Pareeksha:

IV). Rasendriya Pareeksha:
· Madhura
· Amla
· Katu
· Tikta
· Kashaya

Panchabhoutika Nirmanaya(according to Rasa):

· Madhura = Jala + Prthvi
· Amla = Prthvi + Agni
· Katu = Vayu + Agni
· Tikta = Vayu + Akasha
· Kashaya = Vayu + Prthvi

 Chemical constituents:

ü Anthroquinone
ü Glycoside
ü Chebulinic acid
ü Tanic acid
ü Galic acid
ü Terchebin
ü Arachidic
ü Begenic
ü Indic
ü Oleic
ü Pulmitic
ü Sterricacide

 Guna Karma:

1. Veerya : Ushna
2. Vipaka : Madhura
3. Guna : Laghu, Ruksha
4. Prabhava : Tridosha shamaka
5. Doshagnata : Tridosha shamaka
6. Rogaghnata : Shota, Prameha, Kushta, Vrana, Chardi, Vata rakta
7. Karma : Tridosha hara, Anulomana, Rasayana, Praja sthpana, Caksusya, Hrdya
8. Matra : Powder 3-6 grm
9. Vishista Kalpana/Yoga :

 Amaika Prayoga(With Reference) :

1. Raktarshas – Take Haritaki with guda before meal
2. For pravahika – Haritaki And Pippali
3. Rakta pittaya – Triturate haritaki choorna with vasa swarasa for seven
times and give with pippali choorna and bee honey
4. For Ashmari – Haritaki seeds choorna with ksheera kashaya

GWAI-University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka